Portrait of Dr Timo Klein

Dr Timo Klein : Consultant

Timo is a member of Oxera’s Competition and Analytics teams. He specialises in the use of theoretical and quantitative tools in the context of competition policy cases. Timo has experience related to damage estimation, cartel investigations, merger control, and abuse of dominance allegations across a wide range of sectors including digital services, financial services, telecoms, pharmaceuticals, and retail. Prior to joining Oxera, he worked in the Chief Economist Team at the European Commission’s DG Competition.

Alongside his role as consultant, Timo is a Lecturer in Competition Economics at Utrecht University School of Economics and School of Law, where he teaches on the economics of competition law (cartel theory, vertical restraints, abuse of dominance, and merger theory) in the LLM and MSc in Law and Economics. He has authored several academic publications related to algorithms and competition. Timo holds a PhD in Competition Economics from the University of Amsterdam.

Timo speaks Dutch, and English.

Tel: +31 (0) 6 2524 6183

Timo's specialisms include:

professional experience

  • Audit and review of a large FCA pricing remedy simulation for UK general insurance (2020)

  • Quantification of damages and assessment of pass-on in foreign exchange cartel litigations (2020)

  • Assessment of the theories of harm around gross list price collusion litigations following the EU trucks cartel (2020)

  • Advice for a large media company on the anticompetitive concerns around loyalty rebates in TV advertisement (2020)

  • Economic study commissioned by Amazon on the impact of the EU Digital Markets Act on innovation (2020)

  • Developing a theoretical framework for excessive pricing and modelling price–cost margins in a European excessive pricing case in pharmaceuticals (2018–19)


  • Klein, T. (2020), ‘Autonomous algorithmic collusion: Q-learning under sequential pricing’, conditionally accepted by the RAND Journal of Economics.

  • Klein, T. (2020), Essays in Competition Economics, PhD Dissertation, University of Amsterdam.

  • Klein, T. (2020), ‘(Mis)understanding algorithmic collusion’, Antitrust Chronicle, 13 July.

  • Klein, T. (2020), ‘Event studies in merger analysis: Review and an application using U.S. TNIC data’, Amsterdam Center for Law & Economics Working Paper No. 2020-01.

  • Boot, N., Klein, T. and Schinkel, M. P. (2019) ‘Collusive benchmark rates fixing’, Amsterdam Center for Law & Economics Working Paper No. 2017-02.


  • PhD Competition Economics, University of Amsterdam, Netherlands

  • MPhil Economics, Tinbergen Institute, Netherlands

  • MSc Political Economy of Europe, London School of Economics and Political Science, UK

  • BSc Economics and Business, University of Amsterdam, Netherlands

Latest Insights:  Dr Timo Klein

Recent policy reports point towards differential access to data as a source of market power and a barrier to competition, especially (but not exclusively) in markets for digital services. One…
Should companies be allowed to cooperate—or ‘collude’—on socially beneficial environmental behaviour? Do companies even have the incentive to cooperate on socially beneficial behaviour? In this article, we reconcile apparently divergent…
Non-fungible tokens (NFTs) are blockchain-based ownership certificates of all kinds of digital collectables—ranging from pixelated cats to canonical YouTube videos and even recordings of unique moments in sport. The market…
Increasingly, prices are set by algorithms rather than humans. Many competition authorities have voiced their concerns that this may enable firms (knowingly or otherwise) to avoid competitive pressure and collude.…

The Economics of Climate Change at COP26

Oxera will be presenting on The Economics of Climate Change at COP26—the 2021 United Nations Climate Change Conference—in Glasgow, on one of the world leaders’ days on 2 November 2021. The aim of COP26 is to increase global alignment on climate action. We will be demonstrating to the world’s governments,… Read More

Image depicting The Economics of Climate Change at COP26