Being patient: what delays access to new drugs in Europe?
On average, the first citizen to access a new drug in Belgium will wait 13 months longer for it than someone prescribed the same drug in Germany or the UK, despite an EU-wide licensing process. This suggests that country-specific drug regulation—the ‘fourth hurdle’ faced by drug manufacturers—may go a long way to explaining launch delay across Europe.
Carbon pricing is often recommended by economists as a way to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, in practice, several different carbon prices are used in the aviation sector. What are each of these prices, and why do they differ? And are carbon markets even working correctly? Given the unfolding… Read More
Improving consumer engagement with financial services (and why banning commissions might be a bad idea)
The remuneration of financial intermediaries has been the subject of debate across Europe for several years. In its recently published Retail Investment Strategy (RIS), the European Commission has proposed to impose a (partial) ban for insurance intermediaries to receive inducements when independent advice is provided, or products are sold… Read More