Behavioural economics uses insights from psychology to explain the effects of cognitive and behavioural processes on consumer behaviour and market outcomes. Its usefulness for competition policy remains subject to intense debate. Oxera’s study is the first to assess systematically how behavioural economics in its current state influences, or could influence, each of the main instruments and tools used in competition policy. The result is a practical overview that indicates a number of areas where, based on the current state of the literature, the insights from behavioural economics can already be useful for the analysis in competition cases.